Sanitary napkin is an absorption material, the main material is made of cotton, absorbent, pulp or more compounds formed by polymer and polymer composite paper, the design of the side is mainly used to prevent sliding sideways, because cotton ontology and health when they used a certain Angle, more easily and groins flow friction, so use the soft material side of the sanitary napkin is more popular with women.
The sanitary napkin is divided into three layers, which are the face layer, the absorption core and the bottom layer.Tampon's back glue is an impermeable material that can be retained in tampons to absorb menstrual bleeding from the vagina.
Material is qualitative
Auntie, M, etc
1 invention history
The rudiment of sanitary napkin
A washable stage
The abandoned phase
2 main categories
Dry net face sanitary napkin
Cotton soft sanitary napkin
Cotton sanitary napkin
4 usage method
5 varieties selection
It's a regular change
Choice of sanitary napkin
Use of tampons
7 toxic sanitary napkin
The invention process
Rudiment of sanitary napkin
Egypt: use softened papyrus leaves as tampons.In Egypt in 1550 BC, the existing soft cloth into the vagina to prevent pregnancy, experts concluded that the soft cloth is used to deal with menstruation, that is what we can know about the first generation of "sanitary napkin".
China: Chinese women use a long white cloth to absorb blood under the body during the period of menstruation, and then wash it with clear water and alum
Greece: it was wrapped in sackcloth and used as a tampon.
Africa: women in some places use soft feathers and cloth pads in the lower body and collect used feathers and pieces of cloth to collect in small barrels.
United States: the modern version of the sanitary napkin is said to be invented by a cherished wife American man, he inadvertently found that with a soft cloth to clean the cotton fiber and absorbent pulp wrapped, do slits pads, can effectively relieve the suffering of the wife menstruation and inconvenient.The cotton pad became popular in Europe and the United States in the 1940s and gradually developed into disposable materials
Also, ancient women, because there is no health cotton can be used, so in the cave of the era of women, sometimes with the sponge in the sea, directly or with the grass and things like that use sanitary napkin.
In the 19th century, stepping into the "washable sanitary cotton" phase, women would pack a batting or rag into a bag and make a so-called "rag bag" for use as a tampon.In addition, the use of broken bag that s women will be in the middle of the hip and clothes to wear "health apron" (with half a piece of the size of the apron rubber pad, don't be a piece of cotton cloth, and then around the waist, rubber mat cotton stick to the hip bypass the vagina, then use the safety pin or suspension clamp fixed), so the menstrual days, at that time is always very inconvenient.
Until world war I invented "fiber cotton", it was added to other products, including disposable bandages and extended products.The nurse would begin to use cotton cloth or cloth covered with gauze, making "disposable tampons", and tampons were born.In the 20th century, there is also a part of the company started production of sanitary napkins, women with safety pin or tied to a physical belt with a fixed sanitary napkin (" physical "is similar to a tied on the waist belt, with a strap around in front of the vagina, behind also with a strap around the hip, to use a safety pin or a suspension clamp fixed tampons)
The first world war, American female nurses serving in France.The women in lithe white clothes were the forerunners of modern working women.Even during menstruation, they still want to keep that grace, agility and spell able, so he made a bold attempt on menstrual supplies: the bandage plus medicinal cotton, produced the earliest sanitary napkin, the invention of the sanitary napkin, is undoubtedly a great, its significance is across time.That is why it is known as one of the "top ten inventions of the twentieth century."
In 1921, the world's first disposable tampon came from kimberly-clark, the brand "Kotex"
In 1927, the company also launched a tampon brand - Modess.
In the 1970s, the evolution of tampons had a major breakthrough, which was the birth of "self-adhesive back gum tampons".
Between 1989 and 1990, the "butterfly wing" and "silk thin tampon" have rewritten the history of tampon.
The main classification
According to the national standard, the sanitary napkin can be divided into three categories according to the classification of the surface materials:
Dry net face sanitary napkin
It refers to the sanitary napkin made of various perforated film, mainly polyethylene, commonly known as PE film.
Cotton soft type sanitary napkin
It refers to the sanitary napkin made of various non-woven fabric materials, mainly polypropylene, commonly known as PP
Cotton sanitary napkin
It refers to the sanitary napkin made of pure cotton material, which is mainly pure cotton nonwoven fabric.
The structure of sanitary napkin can be divided into the surface layer, the absorption core and the bottom layer.
The materials are bonded by hot melt glue.
Surface is the part of direct contact with skin, its material is soft, the surface texture and indentation can affect the anti-seepage effect of sanitary napkin (dry).
PE perforated film surface and surface layer of cotton is the most commonly used two kinds of material, PE surface and micropore design, can let the menstrual blood is not easy to flow back, let the user feel dry, but the material is hard, some users may cause allergic reaction;Due to the improvement of cotton absorption force design and the appearance of punch and composite materials, the market share after 2001 has gradually been higher than that of sanitary cotton on PE surface.
The inner layer is mainly cotton, non-woven, pulp or above material compound formed polymer and polymer composite paper, used to absorb the outflow of menstrual blood.Side of the design is mainly used to leaking, because cotton ontology and health when they used a certain Angle, more easily and groins flow friction, so using the soft material side sanitary napkin is more popular with women.Tampon's back glue is an impervious material, which can be kept in sanitary cotton and developed from sticky back gum in the 1970s and 80s, which can be used to keep tampons in the underpants.
Method of operation
The use of sanitary towel: one is a long strip, two sides without ears.The sanitary napkin, as long as the torn bags, sanitary napkin and expand, then tore sanitary napkin opposite the tape (adhesion when the tape is to prevent the sanitary napkin package, no other use, can be thrown away after a tear off), on one side of your sanitary napkin with plastic stick on the pants pants crotch, sanitary napkin is in place
Sanitary napkin use. 2: another kind of sanitary napkin is in the middle is an elongated, there is a "ears" on each side, this is the use of the sanitary napkin, opened the package, take out the sanitary napkin, tear to the middle of the first tape, stick with glue side first between pants crotch, two ears on the crotch the narrowest place.Then tore down the left side of the "ears" on the back of the small piece of adhesive paper, "ears" from the narrowest place impreaaion nip to pants crotch pants left frontal tape, and then at the other side of the tear off the sticker on the reverse of the "ears", from the narrowest place right impreaaion nip to pants crotch pants crotch positive fixed, because of the sanitary napkin at the bottom of the glue stick, coupled with the "ears" from both sides of the fixed, sanitary napkin is firmly stuck to the bottom of the underwear, when activities are not easy to shift.
During menstruation, the skin of sensitive part is most vulnerable.According to the survey, 73 percent of women experience local skin itching and burning pain during menstruation.This is due to the use of opaque sanitary napkin, therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate sanitary napkin for the period of time.Sanitary napkins generally consist of the surface layer, absorption layer and the bottom three parts, which should be considered from the materials and functions of these three parts.
First of all, the surface should choose the dry net face funnel type.The surface dryness can make local skin not suffering from moisture;Funnel type design is superior to bucket design, and infiltration of liquid is not easy to return.
Secondly, the middle layer is good for air permeability and high - efficient gelatinization.The sanitary napkin containing the high efficient micellation layer can coagulate the infiltrated liquid into a gel. After compression, it does not return to the seepage. The surface is not sticky.
Third, it is better to choose breathable materials for the bottom, it can make the gas water molecules pass, so, reach the role of moisture in time, effectively reduce wetness sanitary napkin and body, effectively reduce wetness and sultriness between sanitary napkin and body, keep dry and pure and fresh feeling.
In addition, also can choose sanitary napkin according to menstruation quantity
Generally speaking, the amount of menstruation is too much, including two meanings: one is excessive blood volume (normal amount is not more than 100ml);One is that the line is too long (normally within seven days).Menorrhagia often due to endometrial irregular measures and endometrial hyperplasia with shaofu zhuyu tang, or functional uterine bleeding, uterine fibroids, hemorrhagic disease, hepatic dysfunction and other diseases, or is affected by the external factors, such as do not pay attention to menstrual health, form cold heat, caused mental strains.In the case of excessive menstruation, there are already special measures on the market for daily use and night use of sanitary napkins, such as the extra thickening sanitary napkins for the 400 super long nights used for the comfort.Also can be diligent, more change is ok, not particularly difficult thing.
However, for the period before and after the period, especially in the last day or two, when the menstrual flow is less, you can say goodbye to the heavy sanitary napkin, choose the amount of daily use or some mini sanitary napkin on the market.
The amount of menstruation is too little (menstrual blood is in a small state), the woman 18 years old have not come to menstruation, or the past period is normally normal and have 3 months above the period that does not come to menstruation is called amenorrhea.It is often due to systemic chronic diseases, such as severe anemia, liver disease, diabetes, schistosomiasis and hookworm disease, and poor nutrition, endocrine disorders, partial uterus dysgenesis caused, genital tuberculosis.In addition, the brain is subjected to intense stimulation or damage, such as excessive fatigue, can also cause amenorrhea.However, the amenorrhea of pregnancy and lactation is a normal physiological phenomenon.
The female is in menstruation ,immune system is very bad, if do not pay attention to the adjustment ,it will cause the body all sorts of improper conditions.In the early years of the expert statistics, the use of substandard sanitary napkins, 38% of the population will develop serious gynecological diseases;Seventy-three percent of women experience local skin itching, burning, burning pain during menstruation.About 80 percent of women also suffer from high fever, headaches, and abdominal pain.
The reason is that the female pelvic cavity, uterus and cervical environment are all linked together, so that the female reproductive system is vulnerable to the invasion of the external pathogen.In particular, during menstruation, the resistance of the reproductive organs decreases, and it is more fragile than usual. If the substandard sanitary napkin is used, it can easily become infected.
Menstrual blood is rich in nutrients, so it is a "medium" for bacteria to thrive.An experiment showed that after two hours of continuous use of ordinary sanitary towels, the total number of surface bacteria could reach 107 per square centimeter.
Good sanitary napkin must be on the premise of guarantee their basic without bacteria, focus on the pursuit of two things: good absorption rate and permeability is high, otherwise it may be because give private parts built closed don't dry environment and cause bacteria enter the body.If it is a bad sanitary napkin, it may be because the material contains impurities and the absorption difference greatly increases the chance of inflammation.
Women had better change the sanitary napkin frequently. When the flow is high, it is best to change every two to three hours, and not more than 4 to 5 hours when the traffic is low.Even if you come to your period, you should clean the vulva every day, and the more you should pay attention to cleaning.
Always wash your hands before use, so as not to spread the germs on your hands to the sanitary napkin.
Sanitary napkin method
The sanitary napkin in the market looks from the surface material, mainly divided into dry and cotton and soft.How to choose according to the personal constitution and physiological characteristics, the knowledge is not small.
The dry mesh sanitary towel USES a chemical fiber material called perforation membrane, which is characterized by rapid water transmission, but chemical fiber may increase the risk of allergy.Cotton net surface is used mostly non-woven cloth, which is extracted from cotton, more natural and soft, suitable for the majority of women.
Skin sensitive should choose cotton soft surface product, avoid allergy and excessive friction.But if you need to travel and take a long bus ride, use dry surfaces to accelerate menstrual blood absorption to reduce moisture and heat and reduce the risk of infection.
The built-in tampon is a menstrual sanitary napkin in the vagina that gently clings to the vaginal wall and can absorb all the menstrual blood in the body.So it can prevent leakage and keep it clean and dry.
Because of the sanitary tampon the vagina and the formation of confined space, if not regularly replaced, easy to guide the normal bacteria in the vagina to quickly breed, producing infection and inflammation.And when the blood volume is too young, if not diligent to change the tampon, the use of long time will have the situation of blood flow upstream, resulting in endometriosis and other gynecological diseases.If use should be 2 ~ 3 hours change.
Poison sanitary napkin
In March 2014, the "consumer report" sent to protect comfortable treasure, Sophie, jiao shuang, ABC, Anne er joy, pure silk and care for you and so on ten big brand sanitary napkin products, in order from the aspects of safety and practicality to female consumers some guidance.The test results showed that formaldehyde was not detected in all the products, and all products were detected with the remotability fluorescent whitening agent, which ranged from 54.9 mg/kg to 386 mg/kg
Sanitary napkin the GB GB/T 893-893 (including sanitary pads) in did not react to materials such as sanitary napkin the formaldehyde and fluorescent whitening agent to make any provision, whether its content, or detection method, are in a state of blank.European and American countries also did not limit the amount of fluorescent whitening agent in sanitary napkin products.
How much fluorescent whitening agent of toxicity, LC50 said, is commonly used in detergent commonly used fluorescent brightener CBS (CBS - X) LC50 approximately 5000 mg/kg, volume is very few, cannot achieve the scope of the toxic large amount may lead to cancer.